Frequently Asked Questions

Select a FOA to view questions and answers for the specific funding opportunity. Alternatively select "Non-FOA related items" to view system FAQ items.

Question 1: Can you confirm that propane is officially excluded from the FOA 0002044 and focus is natural gas only?
Answer 1: AOI 5, Energy Efficient Off-road Vehicles, is open to any fuel, including propane.
Question 2: Reference Paragraph III.F  (Page 40) of the FOA.  Please clarify that multiple concept papers (CP) can be submitted by applicants and for each CP that is encouraged by DOE, the applicant may submit a Full Proposal for consideration.
Answer 2: Applicants may submit multiple concept papers to this FOA.  An eligible concept paper must be submitted for each full application submitted. An applicant who receives a "discouraged" notification may still submit a full application.  However, by discouraging the submission of a full application, EERE intends  to convey its lack of programmatic interest in the proposed project to save the applicant the time and expense of preparing an application that is unlikely to be selected for award negotiations.
Question 3: This question relates to AOI 1c: Natural Gas Vehicle Maintenance Cost Study. It would help to clarify if DOE would like this study to only focus on maintenance costs at the vehicle, or if DOE would like this study to also address maintenance costs at the refueling station, including, for example, the maintenance costs of the mechanical compressor(s) at the refueling station.
Answer 3: The focus of this topic is on the maintenance costs of Natural Gas vehicles.
Question 4: There appears to be some consistency between the just-released EERE FOA (DE-FOA-0002044) and the FCTO NOI that went out a few months ago (DE-FOA-0002021). While there does appear to be significant overlap, several specific topics listed within the NOI are absent from the FOA, such as high or low temperature electrolyzers, advanced water splitting research (and synergies with HydroGEN), and hydrogen materials compatibility R&D (and synergies with H-Mat). Is a separate, FCTO-specific FOA also planned for release? Or did these topics just not make the cut for the EERE-wide FOA?
Answer 4: This EERE Office of Transportation FOA and any planned FCTO FOAs are separate from each other.  While it is possible there may be some similarities between the two, the Vehicle Technology Office cannot respond to any planned or unannounced FCTO solicitations.
Question 5: Could you provide guidance and details of the terms of a cooperative agreement funding instrument and as it pertains to cost sharing and the matching requirement.
Answer 5: Sample terms and conditions for cooperative agreements amy be found at https://www1.eere.energy.gov/financing/pdfs/special_terms_conditions.pdf  Information regarding cost share requirements is found in the body and appendices of the FOA.
Question 6: Does this FOA consider ferries to be commercial off-road vehicles, so that AOI 5 of this FOA would encompass electrification technologies for ferries?
Answer 6: Ferries are not considered off-road vehicles for the purposes of this FOA.
Question 7: We are interested in AOI 1c (Technology Integration): Natural Gas vehicle Maintenance Cost Study. Is the study restricted to medium-and heavy-duty diesel and natural gas used in freight and goods movement or can other medium-or heavy-duty diesel and natural gas truck and vehicle applications also be included, such as a refuse hauler fleet?
Answer 7: The topic is restricted to medium and  natural gas vehicles used in freight and goods movement.
Question 8: Given the FOA cost share requirements: Phase 1: Technology Research and Development: 20% Phase 2: Vehicle Integration and Demonstration: 50% How may we split the cost of system hardware between phases?
Answer 8: The project must meet the minimum cost share for the phase as outlined in the FOA. The cost would include the project work performed during the phase.
Question 9: What design inlet pressure or pressure range does DOE anticipate for AOI 3?
Answer 9: Please design for an inlet pressure of 20 bar.
Question 10: We are unable to find an application package online for this FOA.
Answer 10: All applications must be submitted through the EERE Exchange system.  Application instructions are included in the FOA document.
Question 11: Does the System for Award Administration (SAM) registration and obtaining a Dun and Bradstreet Data Universal Numbering System (DUNS) Number need to be completed in order to submit a concept paper?
Answer 11: No
Question 12: Does the System for Award Administration (SAM) registration and obtaining a Dun and Bradstreet Data Universal Numbering System (DUNS) Number need to be completed in order to submit a full application?
Answer 12:  No; however, please note if your application is selected for negotiations leading to award, obtaining a DUNS number and the SAM registration must be completed prior to the award being executed.  For this reason, the FOA instructions ask all applicants to obtain a DUNS and register in SAM now so that if selected for negotiations leading to award, lack of registration in these systems does not hinder the start date of a potential project.
Question 13: I just graduated from CDL School with my cdl-a and I just started a company but I needed help and was wondering do they offer any grants that help with purchasing a truck.
Answer 13: This  program does not offer grants for purchasing trucks.
Question 14: There are some “special deliverables” listed in the FOA some of which may include proprietary materials. In such case 1. Is there an option to get a waiver for the special deliverables to be exempted? 2. Are the terms of the deliverable negotiable with DOE?
Answer 14: The special deliverables for AOI 4 may not be waived.  However, the terms are open to negotiation.
Question 15: It is unclear if DOE is willing to consider an AST only project under the MEA AOI 4 topic. In other words, if the submitted concept covers only parts of the AOI 4 topics, would it still be considered for the award?
Answer 15: Submitted concept papers should fully address the MEA AOI 4 topic, and not be confined to only parts of it. An AST only project is not of interest.
Question 16: I want to understand how to organize the concept paper involving FC-PAD consortium labs. Is it sufficient to show how a concept paper would benefit by collaborating with FC-PAD and how a specific lab capability can help fulfill the ideas in our proposal? It is not quite clear how we would include the lab capabilities and research profile in the concept paper if we are not allowed to discuss it with the concerned lab when the FOA is open.
Answer 16: FC-PAD capabilities are listed on http://www.fcpad.org. The Applicant would need to consult the capabilities listed and propose capabilities that would benefit the proposed R&D approach.
Question 17: On page 9, Specific Requirements, feedstocks include “Non-recyclable organic components of municipal solid wastes, including plastics”. On page 24 the statement is made “Commonly recycled paper, cardboard, and plastics” are not of interest. The question is how to define “commonly recycled” where plastics are concerned. For purposes of this FOA is it reasonable to assume that plastics such as PET (which is commonly recycled) are out of scope while others such as polyethylene, polypropylene, nylon (etc.) would be in scope?
Answer 17: It is reasonable to assume that plastics such as PET (which is commonly recycled) are out of scope while others such as polyethylene, polypropylene and nylon would be in scope.
Question 18: In regards to the first requirement for AOI4, “Details of novel low-PGM (<0.2 mgPt/cm2) cathode oxygen reduction catalyst synthesis and electrode layer design,” does this refer only to catalyst particles that are themselves lower in PGM? Or are electrode designs which achieve far lower loading of, e.g., pure Pt particles acceptable? Can you also please clarify “Details of how the approach increases understanding of degradation”? Does this mean we need to include a fundamental study of degradation mechanisms?
Answer 18:

The topic targets the development of MEAs that meet performance and durability requirements for heavy-duty transportation applications. The platinum group metal (PGM) loading is limited  to <0.2 mg/cm2. The electrode design to achieve these objectives is not specified.

The application does not need to include a fundamental study of degradation mechanisms.

Question 19: This question relates to AOI 1b (Research): Waste-to-Energy. On page eight (8) of the call, at the bottom of the page, in the first bullet point, the call mentions "Processes to produce pipeline-quality renewable natural gas or compressed natural gas for vehicle use..." It would help to clarify if DOE is open to receiving proposals that focus on "processes that produce high quality / high purity renewable hydrogen for vehicle use".
Answer 19: Hydrogen is specifically excluded as an end product in "Applications Specifically not of Interest", section I.C of the FOA.  However, hydrogen is acceptable as an intermediate, provided that the application is clear how the intermediate will be incorporated into processes to produce biopower or acceptable biopower intermediates by project completion.
Question 20: Are inland marine applications considered off road? The FAQs state that Ferries are excluded. What about inland freight movement through inland waterways?
Answer 20: The scope of AOI 5 excludes inland marine applications, including freight movement through inland waterways.
Question 21: This question relates to AOI 3: High Throughput Hydrogen Fuel Technologies for Medium and Heavy duty Transportation. On page seventeen (17) of the call, at the bottom of the page, the call discusses "Compressors/Cryopumps". It would help to clarify if DOE is open to receiving proposals for AOI 3 that focus on electrochemical hydrogen compressors (EHCs).
Answer 21: As noted in section I.C of the FOA, applications that propose R&D for electrochemical compression is not of interest.
Question 22: My research group focuses on solving a problem related to adsorbed natural gas (ANG) storage. Currently, ANG tanks can only be refilled very slowly because of the heat generated during the filling process. Our research group focuses on designing adsorbents with better thermal transport properties so that these tanks can be refilled more quickly. Is that work within the scope of this EERE call?
Answer 22: An approach that considers improved thermal transport properties would be considered in scope.
Question 23: Our company makes electric off road vehicle that are classified as "Off Highway Vehicles (OHV). The vehicles are classified as "powersport vehicles." Are we excluded from submitting a proposal? ( For AOI 5: Applications that include novelty vehicles and other off-road recreational or sport vehicles)
Answer 23: As noted in section I.C of the FOA, applications that include off-road recreational and sport vehicles are not of interest for this topic.
Question 24: This question relates to 1d. - Technology Integration: Natural Gas Vehicle Tank Affordability. On page 34 of the FOA, I note a cost share requirement of “greater or equal to 50%”. However in other locations in the document, I note a cost share statement of 20%. Would you please clarify as to whether this particular Area of Interest requires 20% or greater than equal to 50%?
Answer 24: The cost share requirements for topic 1d are ≥50% of the total project costs.
Question 25: This question relates to AOI 1b: “at appropriate scales (e.g., less than or equal to five dry tons of feedstock/day).” Usually “at appropriate scales” means this much or more to ensure there are enough materials to be meaningful at avoid really small scale efforts. Is this a typo? If not, what would be considered a minimum amount to be at appropriate scale? 50 dry tons/day? Is that too little?
Answer 25: The statement should be read literally. It indeed means less than or equal to five dry tons of feedstock/day. The topic is targeted at smaller waste operations where traditional methods of anaerobic digestion are not economically viable.
Question 26: Are we allowed to discuss with the FC-PAD after the concept paper has been submitted, accepted, reviewed and invited to submit as a full proposal?
Answer 26: No, you are not allowed to discuss with FC-PAD. However, FC-PAD capabilities are posted on the relevant website (www.fcpad.org). Also, an FC-PAD related webinar is scheduled for March 28th, at 12 pm (EST) (https://www.energy.gov/eere/fuelcells/fuel-cell-technologies-office)
Question 27: 1. Within Topic 1b, how much work can be focused on combustion of syngas in diesel engines? Or does the project need to be focused just on cleaning syngas to get "pure" syngas that can be used in engines? 2. The requirement of 1b is to demonstrate the reduction of LCOE by 25%. Can this be achieved by switching to negative feedstock such as sludges and biosolids?
Answer 27:

Syngas is not called out in the “applications specifically not of interest” section. However, the application would need to make a strong techno-economic case how syngas would be compatible with the existing fuel infrastructure if diesel engines were the target.

Sludges and biosolids are allowable feedstocks as articulated on p.9 of the FOA. The TEA would need to include credible justification for whatever feedstock cost figures were submitted

Question 28: 1) Since the calculations of LCOE and EROI are required, and thus I believe we need to include a TEA component in the application. However, what about LCA? Is it also required? Or at least preferable to include? What is the criteria for the project goal from the LCA standpoint? 2) We target to produce liquid fuel product(s). Could the endproduct(s) be a bioblendstock to gasoline or diesel? Or it is required that the endproduct(s) must be directly used as a fuel for medium-/heavy-duty vehicles? 3) We will target on the production of liquid fuel from waste; wondering whether the testing/evaluation of the end-product as a fuel or fuel bioblendstock necessary in this project? In another words, do we need to include fuel combustion and engine testing components for this project?
Answer 28:

1) The solicitation does not mention LCA for topic 1b, and there is no specific goal. However, if an LCA was included, it would be considered as part of the overall application.

2) This area of interest seeks "proposals to convert these valuable resources into biopower and/or intermediates that are potentially useful as medium-/heavy-duty vehicle fuels, such as renewable natural gas, or in the production of biopower at appropriate scales (less than or equal to five dry tons/day).” The application would need to be clear how the proposed blendstocks would ultimately be converted to fuel or biopower.

3) The solicitation does not state any requirements for engine testing under topic 1b. However, applicants may include such steps if they make the case that doing so would add value to the overall proposal.

Question 29: AOI 1b on page 7 states “These materials include, but are not limited to, forest residues (notably, trees that have succumbed to environmental stresses); municipal sludges and biosolids; industrial, commercial, and residential organic wastes; fats, oils, and greases; yard trimmings; construction and demolition wastes; non-recyclable paper; and other non-recyclable organic components of MSW”  Is lignocellulosic waste included as a material for waste conversion to energy?
Answer 29: Lignocellulosic waste is an allowable feedstock for this project.
Question 30: Does the FOA DE-FOA-0002044 consider refuse vehicles and concrete mixer vehicles to be commercial off-road vehicles?
Answer 30: Refuse trucks and concrete mixers are considered on-road vehicles and therefore out of scope for this topic.
Question 31: This question pertains to AOI 1b: Research: Waste to Energy. It would help to clarify two points: 1) Can the input feedstock to the proposed system be biogas? On page 9, the call states: "Applications must employ an organic waste feedstock, with particular emphasis on the following: ...biogas produced from any of the above." 2) Can the purpose of the proposed technology/system be to upgrade the input biogas feedstock to renewable biomethane as the output?
Answer 31:

1.) Biogas can be the feedstock for the proposed system.


2.) As stated on page 8, processes to produce renewable natural gas from biogas are permissible.

Question 32: Can vehicle incentive funds (from non-Federal sources such as the California HVIP program) be counted as cost-share? These funds would support vehicles needed for project activities including demonstration.
Answer 32: Refer to 2 CFR 200.306 for guidance regarding allowable cost share.
Question 33: At the end of the concept paper requirements table on page 44 - it states "Applicants may provide graphs, charts, or other data to supplement their Technology Description." Are figures included in the 3 page technology description limit or are they attached as an addendum after the three pages?
Answer 33: Figures are included in the 3 page limit.
Question 34: Under this FOA, are port equipment like yard spotters and container handlers included in the off-road equipment under AOI 5 and considered eligible for funding?
Answer 34: If the port equipment is used exclusively at the work-site and not on the roads or highways, then they are considered within the scope of the topic.
Question 35: Are prospective applicants allowed to prime the more technical FOA that came out a few weeks ago, then also apply to be prime on the still forthcoming Clean Cities related FOA. I know that rules don’t allow the same entity to prime more than one project under the same FOA but wasn’t sure whether rules also prohibited priming more than one if they were different FOAs but both under EERE or VTO. Is there any “unwritten rule” that would cause DOE to prefer to not make an award to the same organization applying to prime these two FOAs based on wanting to spread VTO funding around.
Answer 35: As stated in section III.F of the FOA, "An entity may submit more than one Full Concept Paper and one Full Application to this FOA, provided that each concept paper/application describes a unique, scientifically distinct project, and provided that an eligible Concept Paper was submitted for each Full Application."
Question 36: Is there an “Addendum” page to the format of the Concept paper or all information (including PI skills, prior experience, graphs, charts, etc.) should be confined to the 3-page limit of the “Technical; Description and Impacts”?
Answer 36: All information must fall within the 3 page limit.
Question 37: Would Topic 2 consider proposed solutions that are battery-centric and primarily grid-charged, but incorporate cost effective range extension subsystems using non-petroleum fuels (H2, CNG, Propane, other)?
Answer 37: DOE will not provide feedback on technical ideas outside of the concept paper process.  Please submit a concept paper to receive DOE feedback (Encouraged/Discouraged) regarding your proposed project.
Question 38: On page 23 of the PDF, the teaming arrangement section references the need “to include as least one of the following as a project partner…” If a truck OEM applies, does this mean that their project team must also include a state government, local government, air district, etc.? Can a truck OEM apply without project partners and be eligible?
Answer 38: Consistent with the teaming arrangements specified in AOI2 of the FOA, "proposed project teams must include at least one of the following as a project partner during the demonstration period: state governments, local governments, metropolitan transportation authorities, air pollution control districts, and private or nonprofit entities".
Question 39: Is it open to Canadian companies? If only available to USA companies, what are the criteria for qualified USA companies?
Answer 39: Please see section III.A of the FOA for information regarding Eligible Applicants.
Question 40: "The objective of this area of interest is to research, develop, and demonstrate heavy-duty (classes 7-8) battery electric vehicle technologies capable of increasing efficiency and productivity over baseline vehicle performance for freight movement with a daily travel profile ≥ 250 miles. Data from the U.S. Department of Transportation Bureau of TransportationStatistics and Federal Highway Administration shows that 50% of all freight in the United States moves less than 100 miles and nearly 70% moves less than 250 miles.12 In addition, the trend toward “hub-and-spoke” freight movement, with shorter runs between hubs and trucks operating much of the day, may enable battery recharging between multiple deliveries in a single day." Should the inequality be <250 in the first sentence of that quote? I believe the target and the sentences motivating the target are contradictory. Please confirm which is the target of the FOA.
Answer 40: The data supports that a vehicle with a range of at least 250 miles can cover nearly 70% of the freight operations.  As stated in the FOA, the objective is a daily travel profile greater than or equal to 250 miles.
Question 41: We are private company, does this section mean we need to have a governmental partnership? "Consistent with requirements specified in the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007, Section 131 (b)(1), proposed project teams must include at least one of the following as a project partner during the demonstration period: state governments, local governments, metropolitan transportation authorities, air pollution control districts, and private or nonprofit entities."
Answer 41: As stated in AOI 2, proposed project teams MUST include  at least one of the following as a project partner during the demonstration period: state governments, local governments, metropolitan transportation authorities, air pollution control districts, and private or nonprofit entities.
Question 42: This is regarding the funding opportunities from VTO for promising innovative development projects in Electric Mobility. Wish to know whether such grants are restricted to US based organizations or Individuals only, or from other countries as well, like India. If later also is eligible, request your guidance for application for an innovative (patent under process-pending) product , (for which Technology Demonstrator Prototype already developed)that will have universal application in Electric Commuting for first- mile connectivity(From origin of Trip to Public Transportation Utility ) to last- mile connectivity(from Public Transportation Utility to Destination of Trip)
Answer 42: In accordance with the FOA, EERE will not make eligibility determinations for potential applicants prior to the date on which initial concept papers are submitted and  then again once full applications to this FOA must be submitted. The decision whether to submit an concept paper and then a full application in response to this FOA lies solely with the applicant.
Question 43: Can this Grant be used to supply alternative fuels to Commercial vehicles ?
Answer 43: Please review the FOA for details regarding the topics.
Question 44: The stated objective is: The objective of this area of interest is to research, develop, and demonstrate heavy-duty (classes 7-8) battery electric vehicle technologies capable of increasing efficiency and productivity over baseline vehicle performance for freight movement with a daily travel profile ≥250 miles. Question: Are battery electric vehicles with a range extender acceptable?
Answer 44: A battery electric vehicle with a range extender would not be responsive to this area of interest.
Question 45: 1. The solicitation states the cover page should include the project title, the specific FOA Area of Interest being addressed (if applicable), both the technical and business points of contact, names of all team member organizations, and any statements regarding confidentiality. If there is room left on the cover page, can we include some of the Technical Description and Impacts that were identified in the solicitation to be included on pages 2 – 4? 2. If a National Lab (FFRDC) is being proposed as a subrecipient for a program, do we need to provide written authorization from the cognizant CO as part of our concept paper submission documents?
Answer 45:

1. The cover page is limited to the information specified in the concept paper cover page content.  Any technical description and impacts must be presented in the remaining 3 pages.

2. Written authorization for FFRDC participation is not required as part of the concept paper submission.

Question 46: Does the conjunction ‘and’ in the last line require a private/nonprofit entity in addition to one of the partners types listed above?
Answer 46: Only one of the listed entities is required as a partner during the demonstration period.
Question 47: This question is regarding one of the AOI 5 General Requirements on Page 22. The requirement states, “A cost analysis of the proposed technologies that demonstrates an operating cost payback of less than two years.” To ensure that the proposed technology will meet the requirements we have the following questions: 1) Is there a recommended procedure or model for calculating the payback? And more specifically, 2) We assume that the payback will be based on the incremental capital cost of the proposed technology over incumbent technologies. Is this a valid assumption? 3) We assume that the cost assumptions for both equipment and fuel will can be projections at scaled production. Is this a valid assumption? 4) Can we use DOE MYRD&D Technical Targets for some or all of those cost assumptions?
Answer 47:

1) There is no recommended procedure or model


2) Yes, this is a valid assumption


3) Yes, this is a valid assumption


4) The DOE MYRD&D technical targets apply to fuel cell technologies rather than off-road vehicles, so their use may not be appropriate for this topic.

Question 48: 1. In the EERE webpage section for creating control numbers and submitting concept papers, do we need to include the FC-PAD organizations, the respective leads and percentage of effort in the “add key team members” or “add key participants” section ? 2. What is the difference between Key team member and key participant? I understood that participants include all personnel working on the project from all teams. Is that correct? How do we know who from the Fc_PAD organization will be working on the projects if we are not allowed to communicate with them.
Answer 48:

1. It is not necessary to include the FC-Pad organization percentage of effort or list their team members at the concept paper phase of the application process.

2. There is no signficant distinction between key team members and key participants.  Both represent personnel with a signifcant role in in completing the proposed project.

Question 49: Is there an allowance for an addendum (for PI bios, facilities, supplemental graphs) beyond the 3 pages. It was common for DoE to offer an additional page for this. Currently, it lists the page limit for this work as: 1 Cover Page 3 Main pages (Technical description and impacts) Then it states that “Applicants may provide graphs, charts, or other data to supplement their Technology Description.
Answer 49: There is no allowance for an additional page for graphs charts, other data, etc.  All technical information must be included in the 3 main pages.
Question 50: For A01b, ethanol is not acceptable as a final product but can DOE clarify whether mixed alcohols, containing ethanol as a component, is acceptable as a final product?
Answer 50: Both methanol and ethanol are excluded as final products.  So any mixture that contains signficant amounts of either would be excluded.
Question 51: In the application process, the information requested for the cover page is the same one with what we fill out in the various EERE tabs. Is the EERE system automatically going to generate the cover page for each LOI based on the information provided, or do we need to create a separate cover page as part of the LOI document that is uploaded into the system?
Answer 51: This FOA does not require a letter of intent (LOI) but does require a concept paper, which is similar.  The applicant will have to manually populate the cover page of the concept paper+E65 with the required information.  It will not automatically transfer from the various tabs of the Exchange system.
Question 52: Is topic area 5 open to all types of hybridization of equipment? Specifically, is it open for 100% biodiesel/diesel fuel hybridized engine system which would enable 100% biodiesel use under desired operating conditions and diesel when said parameters are not met. "Topic 5: Energy Efficient Commercial Off-road Vehicles (up to $5 million) – Projects focused on improving the system-level efficiency of off-road vehicles, including technologies such as fluid power systems, high-efficiency engines, hybridization, and connected and automated control concepts."
Answer 52: 100% biodiesel/diesel fuel hybridized engine system could be considered in scope for AOI provided the applicant can make the case that the resulting system can significantly improve (>10%) the work-specific energy-efficiency of commercial off-road vehicles.
Question 53: Would it be possible to submit a full application without having done the concept paper step?
Answer 53: Submission of a compliant concept paper is requried in order to submit a full application.
Question 54: AOI 1c, Technology Integration: Natural Gas Vehicle Maintenance Cost Study. On page ten, the call refers to "freight and goods movement for medium- or heavy-duty truck applications". It would help to clarify if refuse trucks (i.e. garbage trucks) would be considered as one type of truck under "trucks for freight and goods movement" under AOIc.
Answer 54: Refuse trucks  are considered on-road vehicles and therefore out of scope for this topic.
Question 55: We are a national laboratory subrecipient working with two industry partners on the project with one as the prime and the other as an additional subrecipient. Do we meet FOA requirements if a total of 51% of DOE project funds go to both partners (31% and 20%), and 49% of DOE funds go to a National Lab?
Answer 55: The proposed cost structure will not meet the FOA eligibility requirements described in section III.A.iii of the FOA because the proposed FFRDC cost exceeeds that of the prime recipient.
Question 56: The link to the SF-424 application appears to be for “Individuals”
Answer 56: The SF-424 form has been updated to the correct version.
Question 57: De-FOA-0002044 AOI 1c refers to “freight and goods movement for medium- or heavy-duty truck applications”. The published FAQ Answer #54 related to 1c states “Refuse trucks are considered on-road vehicles and therefore out of scope for this topic.” Please clarify if subject of 1c are “on-road” or “off-road” applications medium- or heavy-duty truck for freight and goods movement. Is this acceptable?
Answer 57: The topic 1c refers to on-road vehicles for medium or heavy-duty freight and goods movement.